Affordable Research Paper Writing Service
Feel free to ask or send me any questions you may have about this assignment.
Name of organization: Edgewood Christian Preschool
Title of manager: Director: Malcolm Harmon
Brief summary of any three motivational theories:
Motivation is basically a process that helps to arouse and sustain behavior that is directed towards fixed goals (TEXTBOOK, 162). Many motivational theories have been proposed to understand the concept of motivation and also to comprehend the methods and practices that can be employed to motivate people from different backgrounds and with different interests. The Hierarchy of Needs: One of the theories proposed by Abraham Maslow is of “The Hierarchy of Needs” (TEXTBOOK). In this theory the psychologist has stressed on the psychological, interpersonal, physical and economic needs of a person. The five hierarchal needs given by Maslow are: physiological needs, safety and security needs, love or social needs, esteem needs and the need for self-actualization (TEXTBOOK, 165). He emphasizes that human behavior can be determined with the help of the social, psychological, physical needs, which can be further divided into high order needs and low order needs.
Theory X and Theory Y: This concept of needs was further explained by Douglas McGregor in his motivation theory of “Theory X and Theory Y”. He divided the safety and physiological needs into lower order needs and the esteem, social and self-actualization needs as the higher order needs (TEXTBOOK, 166). McGregor has given certain fixed assumptions under the two categories of Theory X and Theory Y. The assumptions under Theory X are suitable for employees who aspire for lower order needs, and the assumptions under Theory Y are apt for employees who desire higher order needs.
ERG Theory: Clayton Alderfer utilized the theory given Maslow and proposed his ERG Theory of motivation. He grouped human needs under Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG). He believed that the hierarchy of needs could not identify and categorize human needs. The existence need consists of the needs of physical and physiological needs, the relatedness need consists of love, esteem and interpersonal needs and the growth need comprises of self-esteem and self- actualization needs. Alderfer took the Maslow’s theory further by proposing the progression and regression concept (TEXTBOOK, 167). When needs are fulfilled, people progress, and when needs are not fulfilled people get frustrated and regress.
How employees are motivated in the business: According to the director, the employees are being motivated in the business by finding their basic needs. Each employee may have a different need, and a good manager is the one who attempts to find the needs of his employees. Based on their needs, they should be allotted the jobs. In the Preschool, the employees are given duties based on their needs and also on their interest. Applying the motivational theories also works, but one should understand that one motivational theory cannot be used for all the employees. Certain strategic changes in the motivation theories are essential when implementing in the practical situation. The director always keeps in mind certain workplace indicators, such as commitment, satisfaction, engagement and intention to quit while planning the motivational programs. He also uses the theory of the drives of human beings while motivating his employees. Broadly speaking, human beings have typically four kinds of drives: drive to acquire, drive to comprehend, drive to bond and drive to defend, so while planning the motivational strategies these drives should be kept in mind.