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The paper is about the disease "Eczema".
Eczema is derived from a Greek word, which means to effervesce or to bubble or to boil over. Eczema is called medically as atopic dermatitis and is an itchy and red rash, which appears on any part of the body or the entire body (Eczema, n.d.). Eczema can occur in children and adults and even in small babies. Eczema is usually diagnosed at a very young age and very rarely it can begin in adulthood. The eczema rash can appear different and it can also affect different parts of body time to time, for example one time it can appear on the knee, the other on the neck or wrists or ankles or sometimes even all over the body. It differs in severity and can be mild, moderate or severe. One of tough situations associated with eczema is the itch-scratch cycle, which makes the rash even worse. Causes and Trigger Factors People of any age can get eczema, but it is usually diagnosed when the eczema patients are young or just babies. It continues into adulthood, but sometimes the severity reduces as children become adults. The causes of eczema can be allergic or genetic, but still the exact causes are not known yet. Eczema is triggered due to many factors. Some of the common triggers are:
1. Irritants: such as bubble bath, disinfectants, soaps and detergents and juices of meats, vegetables, or fruits.
2. Allergens: such as house dust mites, molds, dandruff, pets, and pollens
3. Microbes: such as bacteria, viruses and certain fungi.
4. Foods: such as eggs, nuts and seeds, dairy products, wheat and soy products.
5. Stress and hormones (Causes & Triggers, n.d.).
People Affected by Eczema in the US and the World
The national prevalence calculated using the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health of a sample of 102, 353 children of 17 years and above shows that the prevalence ranged from 8.7 percent to 18.1 percent between states and districts and the highest prevalence was found in the East Coast States, as well as Idaho, Utah and Nevada (Shaw, Currie, Koudelka, & Simpson, 2011). Atopic eczema is the commonest dermatoses with a prevalence of 2-5 percent in children and around 10 percent among young adults (Ring & Darsow, 2015).
Prevalence of Allergic Diseases in the World
(Bahaj, Moharem & Kaid, 2012).
Treatment of Eczema
Eczema can be treated using different methods , such as bathing, moisturizing, topical
corticosteroids, phototherapy, topical calcineurin inhibitors, psychodermatology,
immunosuppressants and alternative therapies , such as bleach baths, vinegar baths and wet
wraps (Treatment , n.d.).
Negative side effects of Prescription Medicines for Eczema
Corticosteroids can cause skin atrophy or thinning of skin and prolonged use of
corticosteroids can cause stretch marks. Patients who are under-treated can develop thick skin or
darkening of skin due to rubbing and scratching. Glaucoma and cataracts can occur due to long
use of corticosteroids. Pus bumps, pink bumps, acne, folliculitis can also be caused due to topical
corticosteroid. Corticosteroids given by mouth in children can cause adrenal suppression, which
may cause growth suppression and weak immune responses (Risks of Topical Corticosteriods,