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Weekly reading and answer the questions
1)Read the following two readings posted under the weekly readings and answer the questions. Please write your answers in the box, or attach a word document.
A. Kates, R. W., Parris, T. M., and Leiserowitz, A. A. (2005). What is sustainable development?. Environment, 47 (3), 8-21.
1. Brundtland Report argues that environment and development are inseparable. Explain why?
2. What is the standard definition of sustainable development defined by the Brundtland’s report? This is the first full definition, but the definition is ambiguous. Why?
3. The US National Academy of Sciences expanded the definition explaining what to be sustained, for how long, and what is to be developed. Explain the expanded definition.
4. What are the three pillars of sustainable development? Describe them.
6. The article talks about three sets of goals including the short-term, the two-generation goals, and the long-term goals. What are the major differences between these goals?
7. Explain why sustainable development can be viewed as social movement.
8. Based on the article sustainable development is attached from two very different perspectives? Explain.
B. Doppelt, B. (2010). Leading change toward sustainability. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Limited. Chapter 3: A primer of sustainability.
9. What is the difference between sustainability and sustainable development ?
10. What is the natural capitalism?
11. Explain the unsustainable linear ‘take-make-waste’ economic system, and the sustainable circular ‘borrow-use-return’ economic model.
12. What are the ‘5R’ hierarchy of sustainability? Why are they hierarchical?
2)Students are required to post a current sustainable tourism (Week1 Discussion Topic 2 and 3 -principles of sustainability, key concepts of sustainable tourism and ecotourism ) related question/issue from news, magazines, blogs, etc. that impacts tourism directly or indirectly. Each student has to post one question/issue every week, respond to five other students’ issues/questions, and conclude the issue/question posted by him/herself.
The question has to be based on authentic sources (newspapers, magazines, company website, etc) and be specific. You have to provide the link to the source. Remember this is sustainable tourism course, so the question has to be related. The questions have to be related to the topic of the week.
This week's topics are tourism introduction and it includes definition, tourism system, major components of tourism, tourists statistics, and sustainability, so your question/issue should be related.
Students have to post one question by Tuesday midnight, respond to five other students questions between Tuesday midnight and Thursday midnight, and conclude/wrap up the issue/question between Thursday midnight and Friday midnight.
- Brundtland Report argues that environment and development are inseparable. Explain why?
Ans: Bruntland Report emphasizes that the environment does not exist as a separate entity, but it is a part of human actions, ambitions and needs. Development is integral to environment because it is essential to develop the environment, which is the place where we live and development is all about the attempts to improve our environment and therefore environment and development cannot be separated.
- What is the standard definition of sustainable development defined by the Brundtland’s report? This is the first full definition, but the definition is ambiguous. Why?
Ans: The standard definition of sustainable development defined by the Brundtland report is “the ability to make development sustainable-to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Kates, Parris, & Leiserowitz, 2005). This is the first full definition, but still it is ambiguous because it does not clearly define what is to be sustained and what is to be developed. The definitions given later by advocates and analysts clearly define what is to be sustained, what is to be developed, the relationship between these two and the time needed – for how long?
- The US National Academy of Sciences expanded the definition explaining what to be sustained, for how long, and what is to be developed. Explain the expanded definition.
Ans: The US National Academy of Sciences expanded the definition of sustainable development by explaining what is to be sustained, for how long, and what is to be developed. The definition states that three major categories to be sustained are nature, life support systems and community. Under nature, the subdivisions included are earth, biodiversity and ecosystems. Under life support the subdivisions are ecosystem services, resources and environment. Under community the subdivisions are cultures, groups and places. The three main categories under what to be developed are people, economy and society. Under people the subdivisions included are child survival, education, life expectancy, equity and equal opportunity. Under economy the subdivisions are wealth, productive sectors and consumption. Under society the subdivisions are institutions, social capital, states and regions. The timeframe included was divided as 25 years, now and in the future, forever and these were linked by only, mostly, but, and, or.