Custom Research Paper Writing Service – Disabled Body: Change of Social and Cultural Views Over Time

Custom Research Paper Writing Service – Disabled Body: Change of Social and Cultural Views Over Time

Custom Research Paper Writing Service – Disabled Body: Change of Social and Cultural Views Over Time

Custom Research Paper Writing Service

I send you some pictures to the proof comments

The research paper needs some change in the organization as my proof comments.

Some sections could become subsections of others. There are so many short paragraphs that can be in one long paragraph. Also, some paragraphs need more analysis and explanation.

Make sure you put the citation in each paragraph

Change the paper organization as I mention here

The introduction then make connection to the story you wrote from “the body silent “ as a live experience of disability shaped by culture

-       the disability changes over time – locally specific

-       the experience of disability changes  too is responsive to local context

-       from local and global worlds book you wrote about disability in china  I need you to explain more

if you have you any question send me an email

ANTH 420

Disabled Body: Change of Social and Cultural Views Over Time

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ANTH 420

Disabled Body: Change of Social and Cultural Views Over Time

How would society define a disabled body? Our society and culture are obsessed with

beauty and everything that is not beautiful is not given importance and looked down by the

people who consider themselves beautiful. This could be the reason that the African people had

to suffer a long term of slavery as they were not accepted as beautiful and were believed to be

like animals by the beautiful white people. The example of Sara Baartman shows that black

women were considered different and were shown nude publicly for their unique figures. Even,

the black men were treated inhumanly as animals and were not given the same status as the white

men because of their complexion (Comaroff, 1993). There are examples that show that people

who suffer from diseases and are disabled or disfigured are looked down by the society.

Sometimes it is just the fear of looking different from normal that creates a new category of

disabled or disfigured, for example Mr. Hyde. His looks scared people and his disfigurement or

disability made people think that he was evil. History reveals that the topic of the disabled body

has been studied in different eras under different categories. Society and culture have influenced

strongly the way a disabled body has been viewed and disability is socially and culturally

constructed and this could be the reason that the way we look today at a disabled body is quite

different from the way it used to be viewed in the past because of the social and cultural changes.

Society and culture define disability in different ways. According to anthropology,

disability can be defined on the basis of impairment, “Individuals are impaired if they experience

(or are perceived by others to experience) physiological or behavioral statuses or processes

which are socially identified as problems, illnesses, conditions, disorders, syndromes, or other

similarly negatively valued differences, distinctions, or characteristics which might have an

ethnomedical diagnostic category or label” (Kasnitz, Switzer & Shuttleworth, 2001). The

physiological or behavioral differences of a human being based on the illnesses, problems,

disorders, syndromes, or any kind of negatively valued differences places him or her in the

category of the disabled. The label or category of disabled gets attached to a human if he or she

is perceived by others, or himself or herself as disabled due to the any of the above mentioned

reasons. Disability can be considered as a relational category that is shaped by the social and

cultural conditions. It of course affects the participation of the disabled in society. Different

sociocultural settings may define impairment in different ways, and these ways have also

undergone changes over time. Technology has also affected the way a disabled body or

impairment is viewed in today’s society, the example of Christopher Reeve, the famous actor

shows that in spite of being disabled he could live a normal life and fight for the other disabled

like him with the help of technology. In spite of being disabled, technology could help him to

become abled (Christopher Reeve Biography, 2015). The cultural and social views have changed

on the basis of one principle and that is disability exists only if it is considered in reference to

ability. Society and culture define the level of ability and thus they play an important role in

defining disability and declaring a person as “disabled”.

Disability has been defined in the history of the United States in the metaphorical and

symbolic sense. Language used, such as “retard”, “special” and “lame’ show how society

perceived disability and the popular culture of freak shows also shows the symbolic

representation of disability in the US. Deficiency and dependency are the two words related to

disability and this could be the reason that gays and lesbians, immigrants, African Americans,

women and poor people were defined as disabled or defective at varying times in history

(Nielsen, 2012). These people were not given the equal rights to participate in the society

because they were not considered “abled”; or rather they were considered defective.

Another ethnographic strategy that can help to understand the social and cultural views of

disability is authoethnography. When the anthropologists are confronted with their own problems

and a list of disabling conditions that can be chronic, they employ an auto ethnographic lens to

understand their own experiences and reveal their own deepest fears. “The Body Silent” by

Murphy is one such book that provides the gripping take of the struggle of a disabled person who

suffered from spinal tumor that made him a quadriplegic, “His analysis showed how American

cultural norms that valorize independence serve to dis-able identity, status, and social relations,

revealing the cultural and existential dynamics of marginalization” (Ginsburg & Rapp, 2013).

The author compiles his memoirs in the book. He also reflects on the meaning of

disability in today’s modern society. He worked as an anthropologist, and also served in the

armed services. The slow deterioration of his lower extremity and his upper extremity became

the cause of concern for him and he describes in detail the multiple ways he had to use to adjust

The book not only describes his own experiences, but also includes the discussion of

some of the famous essays written by famous authors, such as Sigmund Freud, Erving Goffman,

Susan Sontag, and others. He also describes the political struggles of the disabled that helped

them to get some rights and services and also gave them the rights to become a part of the

society. It is not an easy task for a disabled to get even his simple basic needs met and Murphy

explains the circumstances in great detail to help the readers gain an insight into a life of an

The author also highlights on the social issues associated with disability. The views of

known people change, and they try to treat the disabled in a different manner. He narrates an

incident of a dentist and the way he patted on his head and that made Murphy feel like a child

and he decided never to go to that dentist, but at the same time the way the undergraduates

treated him made him feel at ease and he realized that they could correlate with him as a

professor in a better way when he was disabled.

He also highlights the stress on marital life due to his disability. He had a strong bond

with his wife and long time companion. They shared a strong physical and emotional bond and

this brought them closer. When his disability progressed, he often used to feel guilty that he is

overburdening his wife. There was a change of roles and his wife was the care-giver. Often he

used to over imagine the reactions of his wife, “Do I detect a note of impatience? Is she

annoyed? Is she overtired? Should I have asked her? Does that slight inflection say, “What in

hell does he want from me now?” This is not completely a concoction of my imagination, for we

have been married so long we are thoroughly familiar with each other’s rich sub verbal

vocabulary of tone, accent, stress, gesture, and facial expression” (Murphy, 2001). Looking from

the point of a view of a disabled person, it does appear that many of them may face these kinds

of social issues and it must be difficult for them to adjust in their social lives.

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