People often take shortcuts in problem solving and quickly arrive at answers. Known as heuristics, these
shortcuts may increase the speed of decisions but may also decrease the accuracy of those decisions.
The experiment used in this assignment deals with inaccurate decisions based on the conjunction
fallacy, where people think the chance of two events happening at the same time is greater than just
one event occurring. However, the chance of one event occurring is greater than two events occurring;
hence, the fallacy.
Access the CogLab demonstration Typical Reasoning. Follow the instructions to complete the
demonstration (description and results are included with the assignment). Next, answer the following
For this demonstration, on average, do participants give higher ratings for single events or conjunctions
of events? Based on the demonstration results, did you make your judgments by using objective
probabilities? Why or why not?
What is a stereotype? How do stereotypes relate to the findings of this demonstration?
Respond to the following two situations:
You and two of your coworkers have just interviewed a candidate for a job opening at your law firm.
Your boss asks you what inferences you made about the candidate during the interview. What can you
do to maximize your likelihood of making a correct inference?
John is a young, energetic, muscular, and outgoing individual. Estimate the following for him:
He is tall and likes sports
He is tall, likes sports, and has lots of friends
Write your initial response in 4–5 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.
In general, people give higher ratings for single activities, basically for the typical
activity rather than for the atypical activity. For the two activities or conjunctions, people again
gave higher ratings for the typical rather than for the atypical conjunction.
Based on the demonstration results, I believe I made my judgments by using objective
probabilities. According to the CogLab Experiment background, the probability of two events
occurring has to be less than the probabilities of either of the events happening by themselves
(Francis, Neath, MacKewn, & Goldthwaite, 2003). I also applied the same principle while
making decisions and choosing activities in the twelve cases given in the CogLab experiment. I
mostly chose the most probable typical activity, which was relevant to the information given.
Stereotype can be defined as a fixed or generalized belief about a particular group or
class of people. On example of stereotype is that a “hell’s angel” biker would dress in leather
only (McLeod, 2008). Stereotyping is connected to the above demonstration because in this
experiment I made generalizations or responded according to my previous similar experiences.