Research Paper Help – The Colonial Era and Processes of De-Colonization

Research Paper Help – The Colonial Era and Processes of De-Colonization

Research Paper Help – The Colonial Era and Processes of De-Colonization

Research Paper Help

AFRI 222 Study Guide – Final Exam

THE COLONIAL ERA AND PROCESSES OF DE-COLONIZATION

What is the Berlin conference of 1884?

What would you say changed with Europe’s involvement in Africa between early African

history, and the beginning of the colonial era?

What was the justification for colonization?

What were the political and economic reasons behind European colonization of Africa?

Who colonized Ghana and Nigeria?

How did the decolonization process occur? What weakened Europe's grip on Africa. what role

did the United Nations have on the independence processes in Africa?

Were there any benefits to Africans from Colonization?

TRADITIONAL MUSIC FROM GHANA – hands on Drumming and singing activities

RE-examine the handout given on the day of the drumming demonstration.

Know the meaning of these terms or concepts,

and know how they operate within musical material and/or situations related to

traditional instrumental music.

- Call and response

- Time line – figures

- Why does Traditional music contain short rhythms that repeat over and over again? Why

might that be necessary or desired?

POPULAR MUSIC IN GHANA AND NIGERIA-

See the case studies from class lectures

- Master the key musical styles we went over, memorize the names of these styles, and

what were the main characteristics, as well as the influences on these styles.

- Know the main musicians associated with those styles (memorize names,

contributions, etc.)

Also try to understand their particular strategy they used towards cultural

independence in their country. For example which one would best described the popular

1

musicians we studied? And see if you can explain how that particular strategy might have

worked during the times, or social settings in which they were performing.

a. included cultural revivals in their style or performance

b. open criticism and/or direct confrontational themes and lyrics

c. used the strategy of edutrainment directed at young people.

ARTS OF RESISTANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA

Memorize specific years for these events in South Africa's history:

African/Ethnic migrations

Early European exploration

European colonization

The Apartheid era

Independence (post-Apartheid)

Review information on Apartheid

Philosophy behind the social policy

See the ACTS (laws) affecting

Housing

Education

Relations/marriage

Work

Moving about or Travel

Artistic Expression

the apartheid ACTS (laws)

See if you can list 5 or 6 areas of life where blacks were heavily restricted due to the

apartheid ACTS (laws)

Master basic information about …

- Nelson Mandela

- Key Popular musicians in South Africa (see case studies presented in class)

- Various popular musical styles

Other Arts of resistance, such as: anti-apartheid theater

Make a list of four ACTS or laws that had a direct affect on theater,

and explain what role they played in the creation and/or viewing of theatrical works.

AFRICAN ART

Refer to the powerpoint lecture and review the art chart you filled out in class. In

particular, What was the original purpose for each of the 4 forms of artistic expression that

we went over in class? Which ethnic group, and gender group were the original artisans for

2

each form? How do these forms communicate? (Can you recognize them based on an image,

to prepare write a short description of each art form.)

For those who are enrolled in the tutoring sessions here is the Essay

question for the prelim exam.

This is due on Wed. April 29th. You may type or handwrite your answer,

but it MUST be handed in with your worksheet by Wed. to receive

credit.

In no less than (5) paragraphs, please write a short essay describing the

colonization, “Apartheid” system, and independence in South Africa. In

order to receive full credit, you should be as descriptive as possible.

Include as many relevant names, dates, countries, legislation, etc. Your

essay should include an introductory paragraph, followed by three body

paragraphs (colonization, Apartheid, independence), and finally you

should end with a concluding paragraph detailing the significant effects

of the three topics covered.

AFRI 222Study Guide – Final Exam

THE COLONIAL ERA AND PROCESSES OF DE-COLONIZATION

What is the Berlin conference of 1884?

The Berlin Conference in 1884 was held for the European nations to regulate the rush for

territory. The main purposes of the conference were to solve the problem of the European nations

to use the trade routes, particularly along the Niger and the Congo River basins, suppress the

internal slave trade, ban the import of firearms in Africa, and occupation of territories in Africa

by the different colonial powers.

What would you say changed with Europe’s involvement in Africa between early African

history, and the beginning of the colonial era?

In the early years, the colonial rule did not offer anything beneficial to the Africans. They were

exploited and had to work hard and go through a period of suffering. They did not have the rights

to speak. Later, the ordinary people were benefitted because of the missionaries and could get

education, healthcare and religious education. Urbanization and dislocation of families was also

experienced by the African people. They had to face social, economic, and political changes after

the beginning of the colonial era.

What was the justification for colonization?

Europeans justified colonization by saying that they helped in the development of Africa by

colonizing it. They brought education, Christianity and modern culture and these combined

together helped in the development of Africa. They justified by saying that it was their moral

duty to uplift the Africans from their primitive state. They felt that Africans were backward and

uncivilized and by colonization of Africa they were trying to make them civilized.

1

What were the political and economic reasons behind European colonization of Africa?

European powers were interested in Africa for economic reasons. Political reasons were also

important because the European powers wanted to establish their control on Africa, but more

than political reasons the economic reasons were important. Africa was rich in valuable

resources such as land, timber, gold, markets and labor power and the Europeans wanted to

utilize these resources for their own growth and development. To gain control of these economic

resources, they needed political power.

Who colonized Ghana and Nigeria?

British colonial power colonized Ghana and Nigeria.

How did the decolonization process occur? What weakened Europe's grip on Africa. What

role did the United Nations have on the independence processes in Africa?

There was no one process of decolonization. In some areas, the decolonization process was

orderly and peaceful, while in others a revolution was necessary. Some European governments

formed a new relationship with their former colonies and some others contested decolonization

militarily. Decolonization was also affected by the competition of the superpowers and the cold

war between the super powers like America and the USSR. Europe’s grip on Africa reduced after

the World War II when the resistance of the local people increased and the UN started

pressurizing the European powers to free the colonies under their rule.

The newly independent nations that emerged in the 1950s and the 1960s changed the

balance of power within the United Nations. In 1946, there were 35 member states in the

United Nations; as the newly independent nations of the “third world” joined the

2

organization, by 1970 membership had swelled to 127. These new member states had a

few characteristics in common; they were non-white, with developing economies, facing

internal problems that were the result of their colonial past, which sometimes put them at

odds with European countries and made them suspicious of European-style governmental

structures, political ideas, and economic institutions. These countries also became vocal

advocates of continuing decolonization, with the result that the UN Assembly was often

ahead of the Security Council on issues of self-governance and decolonization. The new

nations pushed the UN toward accepting resolutions for independence for colonial states

and creating a special committee on colonialism, demonstrating that even though some

nations continued to struggle for independence, in the eyes of the international community,

the colonial era was ending.

Were there any benefits to Africans from Colonization?

There are no benefits of being under the rule of an oppressive form of colonist government. The

common man did not get any benefits initially during colonization, but later he could get

healthcare, education and religious values of Christianity. There was development of the country

and many basic issues were solved, but at the same time colonization gave rise to many difficult

issues, which have not been solved even today. Africa still suffers under poverty and people are

not able to fulfill the needs of basic amenities.

No Comments

Post a Reply